One of the major objectives of Clean Air Network Nepal (CANN) is to assist Nepal Government on formulating necessary policy and plans to address the issues of air pollution and climate change. Air Pollution, Transport management, energy use and climate change have very close relationship. Air pollution and Climate Change have generally common driving forces. So, integrated policy and action plan can only solve the problem of air pollution and climate change. It is obvious that Nepal lacks capacity in terms of human resource, technology and resources to address problems of air pollution. Nepal needs substantial support from donors and development agencies to strengthen the national capacity to tackle these emerging issues. In this context, CANN conducted a country needs survey to identify priority needs for assistance and specific types of assistance required.
Priority and Specific Assistance Required
1. Strengthening of national capacity for air quality assessment and management :
Nepal lacks national level network of Air Quality monitoring stations. Government of Nepal set up six monitoring stations in Kathmandu Valley in 2002 with assistance from Danish government. These stations are monitoring PM 10 and 2.5 only since its establishment. But Very little information exists on air quality status outside Kathmandu due to the absence of AQ monitoring stations. The AQ monitoring stations in the valley are also facing problem due to equipment failure and need to upgrade to monitor other major air pollutants. Nepal also lacks a strategy to consolidate and process AQM data for public dissemination and AQM planning.
• Set up national network of AQ monitoring stations
— Install AQ monitoring stations in major cities of Nepal (at least five stations)
— Upgrade AQ monitoring stations in Kathmandu Valley (maintenance of existing stations and add few more stations )
— Set up source apportionment lab
— Regular monitoring of other major air pollutants in valley
— Prepare strategy and activities to effectively use the data and information on AQM to create public awareness and policy actions
Trainings and capacity building activities on AQM assessment and management for government agencies, NGOs and academic institutions
2 Reducing PM10 and PM 2.5 levels in Kathmandu Valley :
The urban areas particularly in Kathmandu Valley is facing the problem of high concentration of PM10 mainly emitted by fossil fuel-run vehicles, poor roads, and industrial units. There is a high concentration of PM 2.5 in the PM10 samples collected in Kathmandu Valley.
• Update and endorse Kathmandu Valley AQM Action Plans
• Prepare Action Plan of Clean Energy, Clean Air And Climate Change for 5 municipalities of Kathmandu Valley
• Promotion of EVs and public transport system in valley
3 Promoting sustainable transportation planning for urban and intercity transport services with an emphasis on alternative fueled vehicle
Nepal lacks a coherent transport policy.There is a need to provide capacity building within the Ministry of Transportation and Department of Transport Management to handle the challenge of planning and managing a rapidly urbanizing country. Nepal faces two different challenges. The first is planning and implementing an efficient transport plan intercity services. And the second is the challenge to respond to the growing transport need of the urban centers. Transport Ministry and its agencies need the capability to introduce and effectively implement transport policies to meet the growing transportation needs Nepal
• Technical Assistance on preparing environmentally sustainable transport policy and capacity building for concerned agencies
• Implementation of Environment Sustainable Transport System in Municipalities of Kathmandu Valley on pilot basis.
4. Planning an effective vehicle inspection and maintenance system
Nepal lacks an effective and systematic inspection and maintenance system for in-use vehicles. The present inspection system has many loopholes such that the intended results are not achieved.
• Integrated Awareness and Capacity Building Program that targeted to enhance Civic Sense on regular vehicle maintenance
• Training programs on vehicle maintenance for garage workers
• Technical Assistance to improve current vehicle inspection system in Nepal
— Explore potentiality for involvement of private sector or local municipality in vehicle inspection work
— Identify needs for capacity building of private sector or municipality and involve them in vehicle inspection work
• Upgrade the vehicle emission standards for both new and in use vehicles
• Enforcement of the Concept of "driving cycle"
5 Setting a fuel quality standards and updating AQ standards
Although Nepal has an immense potentiality in producing renewable energy, currently depends more on the other countries for the fossil fuel to meet energy demand. The quality of fuel has always been a question and a remarkable thing for the increase in emission. There is definite need in maintain the quality of those things as that directly bear the air quality.
Nepal has adopted National Ambient Air Quality Standards, Emission Standards but these standards need to be updated accordingly.
• Announcement of standard for the fuel such as coal, diesel and other petroleum products
• Formulate National Fuel Economy Policy for transport and industry sector
• promotion of cleaner technology and renewable energy sources in Industry and Transport sector
• Technical Assistance to Nepal Oil Corporation to set up effective inspection and quality control program for assurance of quality of control of petroleum products sold within the country
• Review and update NAAQS and set up standards for important hazardous air pollutants such as benzene, PAH
• Review, update and formulate emission standards for transport and industry sector
5 Strengthening Institution and formulating necessary policy, plan and action points
Nepal lacks a champion institution which is solely responsible for policy formulation, planning, implementation, compliance and necessary coordination among relevant stakeholders. In the absence of a comprehensive Clean Air Act and action plan for AQM, much has yet to be achieved.
• Technical assistance to set up a champion institution within Ministry of Environment and capacity building activities for such institution
• Formulate National Long term Vision for Clean Air
• Formulate compressive clean air act and subsequent action plans